Logical Puzzles with Solutions

In bank exam (SBI, IBPS, and RRB) & SSC Reasoning is one of the most important sections. A good score in reasoning test can lead you at higher marks in banking exam. So as continuously we are providing reasoning study notes on different topics.  In competitive exams the most important thing is time management, if you know how to manage your time then you can do well in Bank Exams. In reasoning some questions are very easy which needs only few seconds to solve them. But some of the questions are very tricky and lengthy for example LOGIC PUZZLES questions but as well as it is very important topic. Usually 14 – 15 questions can be given from this topic in bank exam or other competitive exams as well. It can be easy topic if you have right tricks to find out logic by which the puzzle will be solved. Here we are providing important tips and example which are asked in SBI, IBPS bank exams.  
Logical Puzzles with Solutions

This section of analytical reasoning comprises of questions put in the form of logic puzzles involving certain number of items, be it persons or things. The candidate is required to analyze the given information, condense it in a suitable form and answer the questions asked.
The questions on logic puzzle test may be any of the following types:
         i.            Classification Type questions
       ii.            Seating/placing Arrangements
     iii.            Comparison type questions
     iv.            Sequential order of Things
       v.            Selection based on given Conditions
     vi.            Family based problems
   vii.            Jumble problems
Comparison type reasoning logic puzzle examples with solutions:
In such type of questions, clues are given regarding comparisons among a set of persons or things with respect to one or more qualities. The candidate is required to analyse whole information, form a proper ascending / descending sequence and then answer the given questions accordingly.
Ex. 1 Read the puzzle information given below and answers the questions that follow:
         i.            There is a group of five girls.
       ii.            Kamini is second in height but younger than Reena.
     iii.            Pooja is taller than Monika but younger in age.
     iv.            Reena and Monika are of the same age but Reena is taller between them.
       v.            Neelem is taller than Pooja and elder to Reena.
     vi.            Kamini is not the youngerst in the group.
1.      If the girls are arranged in the descending order of heights, who will be in third position?
a.       Monika
b.      Reena
c.       Monika or Reena
d.      Data inadequate
e.       None of these

2.      If they are arranged in desecding order of their ages, who will be in fourth position?
a.       Monika or Reena
b.      Kamini
c.       Monika

d.      Data inadequate
e.       None of these
3.      To anwer the questions “who is the eldest person in the group”, which of the given statements is superfluous?
a.       Only  (i)
b.      Only (ii)
c.       Only (vi)
d.      Either (i) or (iv)
e.       None of these
Solution: here is the solution for the above given LOGIC PUZZLE example:
We first find the sequence of heights.
By (iii), we have : M < P
BY (v), we have : P < N.
Now, Reena is tallest and Kamini is second in height.
So, the sequence of heights is : M < P < N <K < R
Now we determine the age sequence:
By (ii), we have : K < R.
By (iii), we have : P < M
By (iv), we have : R = M.
By (v), we have : R < N.
So, the sequence of ages may be : N > R = M > K > P OR N > R = M > P > K.
But Kamini is not the youngest.
So, the sequence of ages is : N > R = M > K > P.
1.      Clearly, in the ascending order of heights Neelam is in third position. Henc, the answer is (e).
2.      Clearly, in the descending order of ages, pooja will be in fourth position (because Monika and Reena both lie at third position). Hence, the answer is (e).
3.      Clearly, to find the eldest person in the group, statement (vi) is not necessary. Hence, the answer is (c).
Ex: read the following logic puzzle information carefully and answer the questions given below:
B, D, P, M, F, H, K and W are eight friends who have completed their MBA programme with specialization – Marketing, Personnel, Operations, Systems and Finance. Three of them have passed with dual specialization. Operations and Systems were not offered as dual specialization with any of the remaining three specializations. P has passed with Marketing and Finance and earns the least. B has passed with Operations and earns more than F, D and K. W has passed with Personnel and earns less than only M who has passed with a dual specialization. B is third from the top when they are arranged in descending order of earnings. D earns more than k but less than F. No two of them have same earning. K, who earns more than H, has passed with Marketing whereas H has passed with dual specialization of Personnel and Finance. None often three is having the same set of dual specialization. Two of them are having systems specialization.
1.      Which of the following pairs has the systems specialization?
a.       BF
b.      BM
c.       FH
d.      Data inadequate
e.       None of these
2.      Who among them earns more than F?
a.       Only M and B
b.      Only M , W and D
c.       Only M and W
d.      Only W, B and D
e.       None of these
3.      Who among them earns more than only  P?
a.       Only H
b.      Only M
c.       Only W
d.      Data inadequate
e.       None of these
4.      Which of the following specializations is opted for most among them as either single or one of the dual specializations?
a.       Marketing
b.      Personnel
c.       Systems
d.      Finance
e.        None of these
5.      Which of the following dual specializations is applicable to M?
a.       Personnel, Marketing
b.      Marketing, Finance
c.       Personnel, Finance
d.      Data inadequate
e.       None of these
Solution: here is the solution for the above given LOGIC PUZZLE example:
clearly, Operations and Systems were offered as single specialization.
P passed with Marketing and Finane;
B passed with Operation;
W passed with Personnel;
K passed with Marketing;
H passed with Personnel and Finance.
Now, only D, M and F remain. Since M has passed with dual specialization and two have passed with Systems, so each of D and F passed with Systems.
Clearly, M passed with specialization in any two of Marketing, Finance and Personnel.
Since no two of P, H and M have the same set of specializatio;n, so M passed with Personnel and Marketing.
As regards income, from the given information, we have:
B > F, B> D, B > K, M> W, F > D > K, K > H.
Since W earns less than only M, son M earns the maximum; Also B is third in desecding order of income.
Thus, we have :  M > W > B > F > D > K > H.
Since P earns the least, so we have : M > W > B > F >D > K > H > P.
1.      Clearly, D and F passed with systems specialization. So, the answer is (e).
2.      Clearly, M, W and B earn more than F. So the answer is (e).
3.      H earns more than only P. So, the answer is (a).
4.      Clearly, the most opted for specializations are marketing and Personnel, each of which was opted for by 3 persons. Hence, the answer is (e).
5.      M passed with specialization in Personnel and Marketing. Hence, the answer is (a).
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