What are the Purposes of Career Counseling and How to Do Student Counseling ? A Compete Research Paper by Dr. Radhika Kapur

Career Guidance and Student Counseling

By: Dr. Radhika Kapur (A Research Paper)

Published By: WWW.GovtJobsPortal.IN

Abstract: Career guidance and student counseling is an extremely broad and a comprehensive concept, in order to implement this task effectively there are number of factors that need to be taken under consideration. The guidance regarding ones career and the counseling of students involves a conversation between a career counselor; who should be an expert in his field, he should possess all the skills, abilities, knowledge and information regarding the job openings, prospects, opportunities that are available and possess the ability to effectively communicate with the person who is seeking counseling and guidance.

On the other hand, the students or job seekers or a person who is already engaged in employment and is willing to make a transformation is required to posses effective communication skills, a pleasant personality, an approachable nature, an amiable attitude, should be well qualified and possess the required skills and abilities to work and get engaged into an employment setting.

career counceling

Understanding the Significance of Career Guidance and Student Counseling

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) elucidates that the career counseling of youth comprises of four main components:

(a) providing assistance to the individuals to acquire greater self-awareness in areas such as interests, values, abilities, and personality style,

(b) linking individuals to sources so that they can become more well-informed about occupations and professions,

(c) involving human beings in the decision-making process so that they can choose a career path that is well suited to their own interests, values, abilities, requirements and personality style, and

(d) supporting individuals to be dynamic administrators of their career paths including management of career transitions and balancing various life roles as well as becoming lifelong learners in the sense of professional development over the lifetime (Career Development, n.d.).

There have been individuals who choose career counseling as a profession and provide guidance and assistance to individuals who need counseling regarding the selection of subjects or programs. When individuals graduate from high school; they are at times confused between two or more fields or subjects, when they have the required percentage and both engineering as well as medical college offers them admission, then they seek career counseling whether they should choose to become an engineer or a medical doctor. Career counseling and guidance is provided to an individual on the basis of ones interests, abilities, requirements, values and personality traits.

          It is vital for an individual to learn how to manage ones career management skills; as it has been stated that career is a lifelong objective, a career should never come to a halt and an individual should develop the skills regarding the management of his career. For example, an individual is an educator and has chosen the teaching career, therefore, the management of the teaching career centers upon enhancement of the skills such as having efficient knowledge of the subject that he is teaching, good communication skills, appropriate behavioral traits, proper training strategies, regular attendance and efficient formulation of curriculum and instructional methodologies. In any kind of profession, job or field, it is essential to develop career management skills, hence the areas that should be taken into account are: (Career Development Guide, n.d.).

1.    One should realize that career management is extremely crucial for ones successful living, and should become a possessor of ones career development.

2.    Identification of ones career goals and objectives is essential; what one wants to achieve and what are the possible passageways that would lead to the achievement of the desired career goals and objectives.

3.    Identification of all the areas that would lead to ones professional development is also regarded to be a vital career management skill; ones professional development and ones career management goes simultaneously.

4.    One should formulate a career development plan; in the plan all the areas, requirements, capabilities and interests should be stated that the individual finds best.

5.    One should become aware and knowledgeable regarding how to carry out, contribute and get involved in successful career conversations.

The Consequence of Career Guidance and Student Counseling
Career counseling has transformed considerably since its beginning while preserving most of its essential constituents. This was at first instigated to assist the youth in the process of identifying the work and the kinds of jobs for which they were suited. As the value of this undertaking became widely recognized, vocational guidance units were added to school curriculum and became an essential part of the educational institutions. Vocational guidance served both those who are work bound and those who are college bound, in other words, both the people benefit from this undertaking, those who are working as well as those who are pursuing their higher education. Although, in fact the two groups often received extremely different types of training, and differences between the two groups have yet to be addressed adequately in the field of career guidance and student counseling (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).
The main consequence of the guidance of students in the field of education is that, adequate and professional counseling and guidance of students not just involves communicating to them about the jobs and work opportunities available in accordance to their skills and abilities but it also involves communicating to the students regarding the labor market factors, main aspects of appropriate decision making and even different kinds of unpaid work available, because, people normally do get involved in volunteer jobs which are without pay in order to acquire work experience, because normally all kinds of jobs require either short term or long term work experience. Adequate counseling and guidance of students takes place in all kinds of educational institutions, even in kindergarten schools, counseling and guidance of young students is considered to be a crucial aspect.
Purposes of Student Counseling and Guidance
          There have been many purposes of counseling and guidance in all aspects, but in this case, the significant purpose has been identified from the perspective of education and the purposes have been stated as follows:
1.    The individuals have to be made aware of their basic personal prerequisites, abilities, assets, liabilities and potentialities; hence they have to be made aware about their own positive points and negative points.

2.    Effective, meaningful and significant information has to be provided to them in solution of their problems.

3.    The students should learn how to scrutinize their weaknesses and then overcoming them; the role of the counselor and a guide is to help them how to catch the fish on their own and not catching fish by themselves and giving it to them.

4.    Students may also need counseling and guidance services regarding the selection of a career; in this case, they should assist them in making appropriate, satisfying and interesting educational choices.

5.    The teachers as well as the parents should also meet with the counselor or the guide, because it is crucial for them to effectively assist the student who is undergoing counseling and guidance sessions. The parents and the teachers should understand the needs and problems of the students and harsh behavior or screaming at the student is strictly prohibited.

6.    The school authorities or the administrators should be assisted in improving the educational objectives, planning and course curriculum.

7.    The school environment should be formed in such a manner that students should feel safe and sound, they should develop proper attitude towards school, teachers, classmates, values, norms, policies, interests, beliefs, discipline and rules.

8.    Students should be guided to identify their flaws and inconsistencies in the field of education and improve upon their learning. They should be guided in a manner to promote effectiveness.

9.    Students who get addicted to underage drinking and usage of drugs should be shown the right direction and prescribe ways to get rid of such things because they are the major hindrances to ones personal and professional development.

10.  It is essential to promote amongst the students a sense of awareness, ability to acquire sufficient knowledge regarding their studies, when studying they should put the complete focus, and become more capable and intelligent.

Characteristics of Career Counseling
The following are the characteristics of career counseling: (Soumeli, 2012).
1.   Counseling is part of an extensive sector of applied psychology, which has been extended in the structures of career counseling as well as of guidance and sustenance of the individuals during their attempt to practice a career according to their skills and capabilities, or their endeavor to decide upon the psychological problems correlated with their educational and professional life.

2.   Education and career decision making is vital for every individual. Especially, in the present existence, in an era, distinguished primarily by the quick transformation and internationalization of labor, determining and managing a career becomes difficult and it is often aggravating. The person is needed to hold upon the knowledge, be familiar with the objectives, values, requirements and functions that are involved. With the new data and information available, one is discussing about a new model for Professional Development which is the model of Personal Career Management. As far this model is concerned, the individual is required to have the opportunity to reassess the connection between the obtained educational qualifications, the jobs and the personal skills and abilities that he possesses, to be organized through a lifelong learning process in order to be forwarded effectively along with the speedy transformations taking place in the labor market.

3.   Accordingly, the professional selection is not a single final decision but it is the outcome of a complete sequence of progressive conclusions, a procedure by which a person finds every time, that is vital in his life and recognition of his or her main priorities.

4.   Through the development of the above model, one approaches the contemporary and practical measurement of the individual career as a measured, continuing and a complicated process that involves the counseling, the psychological and educational measurement and last but not the least; it also requires the active participation of the students, job seekers and graduates. The model of Personal Career Management is advanced as a regular and multifaceted process that involves the counseling, the psychological and educational measurement and similarly also requires the active participation of the students, job seekers and graduates. The student has already made a preliminary educational selection. After that, he has to make a professional selection which can either be additional education professional training or organization of seminars, workshops, obtaining a master degree, doctorate and so forth.

Influential Factors in Career Guidance and Student Counseling
          There have been four categories of factors that influence career guidance and student counseling: (Report on Effective Career Guidance, 2002).
1. Genetic Endowment and Special Abilities- Race, gender, physical appearance and characteristics; individuals vary both in their capability to benefit from learning experiences and to acquire access to various kinds of learning experiences because of these types of inherited qualities.
2. Environmental Conditions and Events- Social, cultural, political, economic and natural forces and natural resources; these are normally external to the control of any one individual; their influence can be prepared or unprepared.
3. Learning Experiences- Each individual has a unique history of learning experiences that result in their selection of different career opportunities. They often don’t retain the information of the precise nature or series of these learning experiences, but rather they keep in mind the wide-ranging conclusions from them for example, one possesses the ability to work under stress and working with young children. The two main types of learning experiences identified in the theory are an instrumental learning experience which consists of preceding conditions and incentives, behavioral responses that are explicit and concealed, consequences and associative learning experiences where individuals recognize the relationship between two or more sets of stimuli in the environment for example, observation, reading or hearing about occupations; these can result in occupational stereotypes.
4. Task Approach Skills- Communications among learning experiences, genetic illustrations, and environmental influences result in the development of task approach skills. These include personal standards of presentation, work habits and emotional reactions. In the past, the trained task approach skills that are functional to a new task or problem both affect the effect of that task or problem and make themselves adapted and transformed.

Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M.D. (2012). Career Counseling Foundations, Perspectives and Applications. Retrieved September
 12, 2016 from
Career Development: Basic Concepts and Applications. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2016 from
Career Development Guide for HR Practitioners at ANU. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2016 from
Handbook on career counseling. A practical manual for developing, implementing and assessing career counseling services in

 higher education settings. (2002). Retrieved September 11, 2016 from
Ojo, O.D., Rotimi, O. (2006). Fundamentals of Counseling and Guidance. Retrieved September 20, 2014 from
Report on Effective Career Guidance. (2008). Retrieved September 11, 2016 from http://www.career-    guide.eu/uploads/cg_handbook_low.pdf 
Soumeli, L.K. (2012). Career Counseling in Secondary Education: a comparative approach of guidance services between
Greece and France. Retrieved September 11, 2016 from https://cica.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Career_counselling_secondary_education.pdf 

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